Published 1982 by Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington in Seattle .
Written in EnglishRead online
|Series||Primate Information Center topical bibliographies -- 82-010|
|Contributions||University of Washington. Primate Information Center.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||16 p. ;|
|Number of Pages||16|
Download Spontaneous and experimentally induced chromosome aberrations in nonhuman primates
Experimentally induced chromosome aberrations in plants. The production of chromosome aberrations by cyanide and other heavy metal complexing agents. J Biophys Biochem Cytol. May 25; 3 (3)– [PMC free article] King ED, Schneiderman HA, Sax K.
The Effects of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen on the Frequency of X-Ray Induced Chromosome Cited by: Chromosome Aberration Chromosomal abnormalities are the underlying cause of a high percentage of spontaneous abortions during the early weeks of pregnancy.
From: Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (Fifth Edition), Autoimmune arthritis can be experimentally induced in rodents and non-human primates with type II collagen (Trentham et al., ), complete Freund's adjuvant (Audibert and Chedid, ), and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (Holmdahl et al., ), as well as with pristane (Vingsbo et al., ; Olofsson et al., ) and extracts of streptococcal Cited by: 7.
Spontaneous and induced chromosome aberrations have been studied over more than a century. The resolution of detection of aberrations has depended on the improvement of available techniques.
Nonhuman primates are also among the most scarce, costly, and sentient of animal models used in research. During the past 40 years, there has been a significant increase in our knowledge of the. In addition, chromosome aberrations in the rapidly dividing cells of the bone marrow become evident at the first metaphase after their induction.
Most visible chromosome aberration are lethal to the cell and are lost, so no accumulation of aberrant cells would be expected after multiple treatments. Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Autoimmune Diseases in Nonhuman Primates Michel Vierboom, Bert A.
‘t Hart, in Primate Models of Children's Health and Developmental Disabilities, Genetic influence on the development of collagen-induced arthritis in rhesus monkeys. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster cells Using these chromosome specific DNA libraries.
the frequencies of X-ray induced translocations in splenocytes have been determined. Unlike human lymphocytes, the frequencies of translocation were found to be similar to the frequencies of dicentrics (Boei et al., Hande et al., ).Cited by: The rate of all those with X chromosome abnormalities (with a Y chromosome) associated with signs or symptoms that eventually lead to referral for cytogenetic study was estimated at a minimum of.
Chapter 8: Chromosomes and Chromosomal Anomalies subfield of genetics called cytogenetics—the study of chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations. spontaneous abortion and over half of these involve identifiable chromosomal abnormalities.
The percentage of aberrations in unrecognized pregnancies (i.e., thoseFile Size: 84KB. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are less frequently encountered among couples with repeated abortions. Those aberrations are usually in the form of sex chromosomal aneuploidy, and they occur in a low frequency (chromosome mosaicism and one case with trisomy X.
Like mustards, diepoxides, and maleic hydrazide, potassium cyanide seems to act on cells at early interphase.
A tendency of cyanide breaks to be concentrated in heterochromatic segments of the chromosomes was evident. The production of chromosome aberrations by cyanide proved to be practically unaffected by the temperature during by: RUSSELL LB, RUSSELL WL.
Genetic analysis of induced deletions and of spontaneous nondisjunction involving chromosome 2 of the mouse. J Cell Comp Physiol. Nov; 56 (Suppl 1)– Russell LB. Definition of functional units in a small chromosomal segment of the mouse and its use in interpreting the nature of radiation-induced by: Chromosome Aberrations - Science topic Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes.
Many chromosome aberrations, but not all, are the cause of CHROMOSOME. Chromosomal Aberration (also called chromosomal mutation), any of a number of structural changes in chromosomes. These changes result from abnormal divisions within the chromosomes, generally accompanied by reunification of the resulting segments in combinations other than those existing in the original chromosomes.
Structural changes may occur within a. A significant increase in the incidence of structural chromosome anomalies has been observed in the sperm of patients treated with radio and/or chemotherapy for different types of cancer when analyzed by the interspecific fertilization of hamster eggs.
The analysis of these aberrations shows that while in controls only % of structural abnormalities are of the stable type, in treated Cited by: Heredity - Heredity - Chromosomal aberrations: The chromosome set of a species remains relatively stable over long periods of time.
However, within populations there can be found abnormalities involving the structure or number of chromosomes. These alterations arise spontaneously from errors in the normal processes of the cell. Their consequences are usually deleterious, giving rise to.
Chromosomal aneuploidy, that is to say the gain or loss of chromosomes, is the most common abnormality in cancer. While certain aberrations, most commonly translocations, are known to be strongly associated with specific cancers and contribute to their formation, most aberrations appear to be non-specific and arbitrary, and do not have a clear effect.
The understanding of chromosomal. A chromosome mutation is an unpredictable change that occurs in a changes are most often brought on by problems that occur during meiosis (division process of gametes) or by mutagens (chemicals, radiation, etc.).Chromosome mutations can result in changes in the number of chromosomes in a cell or changes in the structure of a : Regina Bailey.
Structural Aberrations; Chromosomal abnormalities occur when there is a defect in a chromosome, or in the arrangement of the genetic material on the chromosome. Very often, chromosome abnormalities give rise to specific physical symptoms, however, the severity of. Chromosomal disorder, any syndrome characterized by malformations or malfunctions in any of the body’s systems, and caused by abnormal chromosome number or constitution.
Normally, humans have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs; the pairs vary. Edwards AA (), Modeling radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, International Journal of Radiation Biol Fauth C and MR Speicher (), Classifying by colors: FISH-based genome analysis, Cytogenetics and Cell Genet Studies during the past 50 years demonstrate the importance of chromosome abnormalities to the occurrence of early pregnancy loss in humans.
Intriguingly, there appears to be considerable variation in the rates of chromosome abnormality, with more recent studies typically reporting higher levels than those reported in early studies of spontaneous by: Curcumin (up to and [micro]g/plate) and curcumin oleoresin (up to [micro]g/plate) have not shown mutagenicity in bacterial reverse mutation tests [27, 28], whereas curcumin induced chromosomal aberrations without metabolic activation in CHO cells at 10 [micro]g/mL [29, 30].
Chromosome fusion and inversion in human evolution - Due to banding homolgies with chromosomes in chimpanzees and gorillas.-This is the case of human chromosome 2-Result of translocation.
- Also comparing chimp and human chromsome 4 thought that was a chromosome inversion. Polyploidy and inversions associated with speciation in plants.
Radiation-induced aberrations Lethal aberrations include dicentrics (A), rings (B), and anaphase bridges (C) Radiation-induced aberrations A: Symmetric translocation: radiation produces breaks in two different pre-replication chromosomes.
The broken pieces are exchanged between the two chromosomes, and the “sticky” ends rejoin. Chromosome aberrations were identified in % of the referred cases.
The most common autosomal abnormality was Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in abnormalities of sex chromosome. The proportions of different karyotypes in Down syndrome (trisomy 21 %, translocation %, mosaic %) were similar to those reported in other by: In experiment 2, culture media caused more frequent structural chromosome aberrations (–%) in immotile sperm than did seminal plasma (%).
In experiment 3, structural chromosome aberrations were found in % of the centrifuged immotile sperm, and a live/dead sperm viability test intimated that the aberrant sperm were probably by: Structural aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid. The in vitro chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures.
Cell cultures are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) both with and without metabolic activation during about normal cell cycle lengths. The association between chromosomal abnormalities and reduced fertility in domestic animals is well recorded and has been studied for decades.
Chromosome aberrations directly affect meiosis, gametogenesis, and the viability of zygotes and embryos. In some instances, balanced structural rearrangements can be transmitted, causing fertility problems in subsequent generations. Here, we. Chromosomal Abnormalities Normal number and structure of human chromosomes Normal cell division Alterations in chromosome number Alterations in chromosome structure Genetic counseling Resources Source for information on Chromosomal Abnormalities: The Gale Encyclopedia of Science dictionary.
Other articles where Chromosomal mutation is discussed: heredity: Chromosomal aberrations: The chromosome set of a species remains relatively stable over long periods of time.
However, within populations there can be found abnormalities involving the structure or number of chromosomes. These alterations arise spontaneously from errors in the normal processes of the cell.
Numerical disorders. This is called aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes), and occurs when an individual either is missing a chromosome from a pair (monosomy) or has more than two chromosomes of a pair (trisomy, tetrasomy, etc.).
An example of trisomy in humans is Down syndrome, which is a developmental disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21; the disorder is. Chapter Chromosomal Abnormalities 1. Define: nondisjunction polyploidy aneupoidy trisomy monosomy 2.
Describe each of the aneuploidies that can be found in an appreciable number of human adults (chromosomal abnormality, common name of the syndrome if it has one, phenotypes) Size: KB. Geneticists from Ohio, California and Japan joined forces in a quest to correct a faulty chromosome through cellular reprogramming.
Their study, published online Janu in Nature, used stem cells to correct a defective “ring chromosome” with a normal chromosome. Such therapy has the promise to correct chromosome abnormalities that give rise to birth defects, mental disabilities. Genetics: Chromosomal Aberrations.
STUDY. Flashcards. Learn. Write. Spell. Test. PLAY. Match. Gravity. Created by. mary_kate_kelly. Terms in this set (20) Acrocentric. When the chromosome has regular q arms and short p arms with a circular shape at the top (satellites) Submetacentric.
A regular chromosome shape. Metacentric. When the p arms are. X-ChromosomeInactivation during Spermatogenesis and ceases transcription earlier in meiotic prophase than the autosomes. Clearly, the conclusion is that in the primary spermatocyte, the Xchromosome is out of phase with the autosomesin awiderangeoforganisms.
The creeping vole M1ficrotus oregoni provides a particularlyCited by: Practice Quiz for Common Abnormalities. of Questions= 7 a structural modification in the chromosomes 4. A structural modification of a chromosome might be: a) a break in a chromatid arm and its separation from its chromosome b) a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion c) a karyotype 5.
What can cause a gross chromosomal modification?. Chromosome aberrations in human solid tumors are hallmarks of gene deregulation and genome instability.
This review summarizes current knowledge regarding aberrations Cited by: Practice Quiz for Overview of Human Chromosomal Abnormalities. of Questions= 5: INSTRUCTIONS: To answer a question, click the button in front of your choice.
A response will appear in the window below the question to let you know if you are correct. gross chromosomal abnormalities such as irregular shapes or numbers of chromosomes b. Start studying Chapter Chromosome Aberrations and Transposition. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.Start studying Exam 4.
Genetics. Chromosome Aberrations: Non-Disjunction and Changes in Euploidy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.Sex chromosome abnormalities are gender specific.
Normal males inherit an X and a Y chromosome while females have two X's. A single Y chromosome is sufficient to produce maleness while its absence is necessary for femaleness. Female abnormalities are due to variations in the number of X chromosomes.